|Title||Body||Technical Expertise Required||Cost||Additional Information|
|Assign descriptive file names|
File names should reflect the contents of the file and include enough information to uniquely identify the data file. File names may contain information such as project acronym, study title, location, investigator, year(s) of study, data type, version number, and file type.
When choosing a file name, check for any database management limitations on file name length and use of special characters. Also, in general, lower-case names are less software and platform dependent. Avoid using spaces and special characters in file names, directory paths and field names. Automated processing, URLs and other systems often use spaces and special characters for parsing text string. Instead, consider using underscore ( _ ) or dashes ( - ) to separate meaningful parts of file names. Avoid $ % ^ & # | : and similar.
If versioning is desired a date string within the file name is recommended to indicate the version.
Avoid using file names such as mydata.dat or 1998.dat.
|Define expected data outcomes and types|
In the planning process, researchers should carefully consider what data will be produced in the course of their project.
Consider the following:
When preparing a data management plan, defining the types of data that will be generated helps in planning for short-term organization, the analyses to be conducted, and long-term data storage.
|Describe format for spatial location|
Spatial coordinates should be reported in decimal degrees format to at least 4 (preferably 5 or 6) significant digits past the decimal point. An accuracy of 1.11 meters at the equator is represented by +/- 0.00001. This does not include uncertainty introduced by a GPS instrument.
Provide latitude and longitude with south latitude and west longitude recorded as negative values, e.g., 80 30' 00" W longitude is -80.5000.
Make sure that all location information in a file uses the same coordinate system, including coordinate type, datum, and spheroid. Document all three of these characteristics (e.g., Lat/Long decimal degrees, NAD83 (North American Datum of 1983), WGRS84 (World Geographic Reference System of 1984)). Mixing coordinate systems [e.g., NAD83 and NAD27 (North American Datum of 1927)] will cause errors in any geographic analysis of the data.
If locating field sites is more convenient using the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinate system, be sure to record the datum and UTM zone (e.g., NAD83 and Zone 15N), and the easting and northing coordinate pair in meters, to ensure that UTM coordinates can be converted to latitude and longitude.
To assure the quality of the geospatial data, plot the locations on a map and visually check the location.
|Describe formats for date and time|
For date, always include four digit year and use numbers for months. For example, the date format yyyy-mm-dd would appear as 2011-03-15 (March 15, 2011).
If Julian day is used, make sure the year field is also supplied. For example, mmm.yyyy would appear as 122.2011, where mmm is the Julian day.
If the date is not completely known (e.g. day not known) separate the columns into parts that do exist (e.g. separate column for year and month). Don't introduce a day because the database date format requires it.
For time, use 24-hour notation (13:30 hrs instead of 1:30 p.m. and 04:30 instead of 4:30 a.m.). Report in both local time and Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Include local time zone in a separate field. As appropriate, both the begin time and end time should be reported in both local and UTC time. Because UTC and local time may be on different days, we suggest that dates be given for each time reported.
Be consistent in date and time formats within one data set.
|Describe the contents of data files|
A description of the contents of the data file should contain the following:
|Maintain consistent data typing|
Choose the right data type and precision for data in each column. As examples: (1) use date fields for dates; and (2) use numerical fields with decimal places precision. Comments and explanations should not be included in a column that is meant to include numeric values only. Comments should be included in a separate column that is designed for text. This allows users to take advantage of specialized search and computing functionality and improves data quality. If a particular spreadsheet or software system does not support data typing, it is still recommended that one keep the data type consistent within a column and not mix numbers, dates and text.
|Separate data values from annotations|
A separate column should be used for data qualifiers, descriptions, and flags, otherwise there is the potential for problems to develop during analyses. Potential entries in the descriptor column:
|Use appropriate field delimiters|
Delimit the columns within a data table using commas or tabs; these are listed in order of preference. Semicolons are used in many systems as line end delimiters and may cause problems if data are imported into those systems (e.g. SAS, PHP scripts). Avoid delimiters that also occur in the data fields. If this cannot be avoided, enclose data fields that also contain a delimiter in single or double quotes.
An example of a consistently delimited data file with a header row:
Date, Avg Temperature, Precipitation