ArcMap is the map display and editing workhorse for the ESRI ArcGIS Geographical Information System (GIS) software package. It is most widely used for map creation, but also has broad capabilities for editing and analysis. The "Toolbox" available in ArcMap provides an encyclopedic array of GIS data manipulation and analysis functions for almost any application.
ArcMap is included in three versions of ArcGIS Desktop, each with an increasing array of capabilities. "ArcView" provides basic mapping functionality. "ArcEditor" adds the ability to create and edit data and to do interconversions between raster and vector data formats. Finally, "ArcInfo" contains the full array of mapping, editing and analysis features.
ArcMap is sold with a number of "extensions" that, if purchased, extend the capabilities to allow manipulation and analysis of additional forms of data or add additional capabilities. For example, the "Spatial Analyst" extension provides capabilities for the manipulation and analysis of raster data such as satellite images and digtal elevation model (DEM) data, including image processing and hydrologic analysis functions.
Scripting of functions is provided in several languages, with built-in support for Python programming within the ArcMap interface.